Reports of research studies usually follow the IMRAD format.  IMRAD (Introduction, Methods, Results, [and] Discussion) is a mnemonic for the major components of a scientific paper.  These elements are included in the overall structure outlined below.


I. The Title Page

  • Title: Tells the reader what to expect in the paper.

  • Author(s): Most papers are written by one or two primary authors. The remaining authors have reviewed the work and/or aided in study design or data analysis (International Committee of Medical Editors, 1997). Check the Instructions to Authors for the target journal for specifics about authorship.

  • Keywords [according to the journal]

  • Corresponding Author: Full name and affiliation for the primary contact author for persons who have questions about the research.

  • Financial & Equipment Support [if needed]: Specific information about organizations, agencies, or companies that supported the research.

  • Conflicts of Interest [if needed]: List and explain any conflicts of interest.

II. Abstract: “Structured abstract” has become the standard for research papers (introduction, objective, methods, results and conclusions), while reviews, case reports and other articles have non-structured abstracts. The abstract should be a summary/synopsis of the paper.


III. Introduction: The “why did you do the study”; setting the scene or laying the foundation or background for the paper.


IV. Methods: The “how did you do the study.”
Describe the --

  • Context and setting of the study

  • Specify the study design

  • Population (patients, etc. if applicable)

  • Sampling strategy

  • Intervention (if applicable)

  • Identify the main study variables

  • Data collection instruments and procedures

  • Outline analysis methods


V. Results: The “what did you find” --

  • Report on data collection and/or recruitment

  • Participants (demographic, clinical condition, etc.)

  • Present key findings with respect to the central research question

  • Secondary findings (secondary outcomes, subgroup analyses, etc.)


VI. Discussion: Place for interpreting the results

  • Main findings of the study

  • Discuss the main results with reference to previous research

  • Policy and practice implications of the results

  • Strengths and limitations of the study


VII. Conclusions: [occasionally optional or not required]. Do not reiterate the data or discussion. Can state hunches, inferences or speculations. Offer perspectives for future work.


VIII. Acknowledgements: Names people who contributed to the work, but did not contribute sufficiently to earn authorship. You must have permission from any individuals mentioned in the acknowledgements sections.  


IX. References: Complete citations for any articles or other materials referenced in the text of the article.