Set I: Adapted from: Bordage, G. (2001). Reasons reviewers reject and accept manuscripts: the strengths and weakness in medical education reports. Academic Medicine, vol. 76(9): 889-896

  1. Inappropriate or incomplete statistics
  2. Over-interpretation of results
  3. Inappropriate or sub-optimal instrumentation
  4. Sample too small or biased
  5. Text difficult to follow
  6. Insufficient problem statement
  7. Inaccurate or inconsistent data reported
  8. Incomplete, inaccurate, or outdated review of the literature
  9. Insufficient data presented
  10. Defective tables or figures

Set II: Adapted from Byrne, DW. (1998). Publishing your medical research paper. What they don’t teach you in medical school. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins

1. Importance of the topic

  • Rehash of established facts
  • Insignificant research question
  • Irrelevant or unimportant topic
  • Low reader interest
  • Little clinical relevance
  • Not generalizable

2. Study Design

  • Poor experimental design
  • Vague/inadequate method description
  • Methods lack sufficient rigor
  • Failure to account for confounders
  • No control or improper control
  • No hypothesis
  • Biased protocol
  • Small sample size
  • Inappropriate statistical methods, or statistics not applied properly

3. Overall Presentation of Study and Findings

  • Poor organization
  • Too long or verbose
  • Failure to communicate clearly
  • Poor grammar, syntax or spelling
  • Excessively self-promotional
  • Poorly written abstract

4. Interpretation of the Findings

  • Erroneous or unsupported conclusions
  • Conclusions disproportionate to results
  • Study design does not support inferences made
  • Inadequate link of findings to practice
  • Uncritical acceptance of statistical results
  • Failure to consider alternative explanations
  • Unexplained inconsistencies
  • Inflation of the importance of the findings
  • Interpretation not concordant with the data
  • Inadequate discussion

Set III: From Pierson, D. J. (2004). The top 10 reasons why manuscripts are not accepted for publication. Respiratory Care, 49(10): 1246-1252.

10. Picking the wrong journal
9. Submitting a manuscript in a format that does not match what the journal published
8. Not following the manuscript preparation instructions
7. Poor writing
6. Getting carried away in the discussion
5. Sub-optimal reporting of the methods
4. Inadequate description of the methods
3. Poor study design
2. Failure to revise and resubmit following peer review
1. Failure to write and submit a full manuscript after presenting the abstract